- Business Case for Emotional Intelligence
- Do Emotional Intelligence Programs Work?
- Emotional Competence Framework
- Emotional Intelligence: What it is and Why it Matters
- Executives' Emotional Intelligence (mis) Perceptions
- Guidelines for Best Practice
- Guidelines for Securing Organizational Support For EI
- Johnson & Johnson Leadership Study
- Ontario Principals’ Council Leadership Study
- Technical Report on Developing Emotional Intelligence
- Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EQ-i)
- Emotional & Social Competence Inventory 360 (ESCI)
- Emotional & Social Competence Inventory-University (ESCI-U)
- Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory (Genos EI)
- Group Emotional Competence Inventory (GEC)
- Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)
- Profile of Emotional Competence (PEC)
- Schutte Self-Report Inventory (SSRI)
- Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue)
- Wong's Emotional Intelligence Scale
- Work Group Emotional Intelligence Profile (WEIP)
- Model Programs
- Achievement Motivation Training
- Care Giver Support Program
- Competency-Based Selection
- Emotional Competence Training - Financial Advisors
- Executive Coaching
- Human Relations Training
- Interaction Management
- Interpersonal Conflict Management - Law Enforcement
- Interpersonal Effectiveness Training - Medical Students
- JOBS Program
- Self-Management Training to Increase Job Attendance
- Stress Management Training
- Weatherhead MBA Program
- Williams' Lifeskills Program
- Article Reprints
Emotional Intelligence and Leadership
UPDATED APRIL 2015
Ahmetoglu, G., Leutner, F., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2011). EQ-nomics: Understanding the relationship between individual differences in trait emotional intelligence and entrepreneurship. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(8), 1028-1033. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.08.016
Antonakis, J., Ashkanasy, N. M., & Dasborough, M. T. (2009). Does leadership need emotional intelligence? The Leadership Quarterly, 20(2), 247-261. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.01.006
Ashkanasy, N. M., & Daus, C. S. (2002). Emotion in the workplace: The new challenge for managers. Academy of Management Executive, 16(1), 76-86. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/ame.2002.6640191
Barbuto, J. E., Jr., Gottfredson, R. K., & Searle, T. P. (2014). An examination of emotional intelligence as an antecedent of servant leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21(3), 315-323. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1548051814531826
Blattner, J., & Bacigalupo, A. (2007). Using emotional intelligence to develop executive leadership and team and organizational development. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59(3), 209-219. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1065-92184.108.40.206
Bratton, V. K., Dodd, N. G., & Brown, F. (2011). The impact of emotional intelligence on accuracy of self-awareness and leadership performance. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(2), 127-149.
Brotheridge, C. M., & Lee, R. T. (2008). The emotions of managing: An introduction to the special issue. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(2), 108-117.
Camuffo, A., Gerli, F., & Gubitta, P. (2012). Competencies matter: Modeling effective entrepreneurship in Northeast of Italy small firms. Cross Cultural Management, 19(1), 48-66. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13527601211195628
Castro, F., Gomes, J., & de Sousa, F. C. (2012). Do intelligent leaders make a difference? The effect of a leader's emotional intelligence on followers' creativity. Creativity and Innovation Management, 21(2), 171-182. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8691.2012.00636.x
Cavazotte, F., Moreno, V., & Hickmann, M. (2012). Effects of leader intelligence, personality and emotional intelligence on transformational leadership and managerial performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(3), 443-455. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.10.003
Chan, K.-Y., Uy, M. A., Chernyshenko, O. S., Ho, M.-H. R., & Sam, Y.-L. (2015). Personality and entrepreneurial, professional and leadership motivations. Personality and Individual Differences, 77, 161-166.
Chrusciel, D. (2008). What motivates the significant/strategic change champion(s)? Journal of Organizational Change Management, 21(2), 148-160. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09534810810856408
Clarke, N. (2010). Emotional intelligence and its relationship to transformational leadership and key project manager competences. [Article]. Project Management Journal, 41(2), 5-20. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmj.20162
Cote, S., Lopes, P. N., Salovey, P., & Miners, C. T. (2010). Emotional intelligence and leadership emergence in small groups. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(3), 496-508. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.03.012
Cross, B., & Travaglione, A. (2003). The Untold Story: Is the Entrepreneur of the 21st Century Defined by Emotional Intelligence? The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 11(3), 221-228. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb028973
Dasborough, M. T. (2006). Cognitive asymmetry in employee emotional reactions to leadership behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(2), 163-178. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.12.004
Downey, L., Papageorgiou, V., & Stough, C. (2006). Examining the relationship between leadership, emotional intelligence and intuition in senior female managers. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27(4), 250-264. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437730610666019
Drodge, E. N., & Murphy, S. A. (2002). Interrogating Emotions in Police Leadership. Human Resource Development Review, 1(4), 420-438. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534484302238435
Fambrough, M. J., & Hart, R. K. (2008). Emotions in leadership development: A critique of emotional intelligence. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 10(5), 740-758. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1523422308323542
Gardner, L., & Stough, C. (2002). Examining the relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence in senior level managers. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(2), 68-78. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437730210419198
Gardner, W. L., Fischer, D., & Hunt, J. G. (2009). Emotional labor and leadership: A threat to authenticity? The Leadership Quarterly, 20(3), 466-482. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.03.011
George, J. M. (2000). Emotions and leadership: The role of emotional intelligence. Human Relations, 53(8), 1027-1055. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726700538001
Goleman, D. (2000). Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review, 78(2), 78-90.
Goleman, D. (2004). What Makes a Leader? [Article]. Harvard Business Review, 82(1), 82-91.
Goleman, D., & Boyatzis, R. (2008). Social Intelligence and the Biology of Leadership. [Article]. Harvard Business Review, 86(9), 74-81.
Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2001). Primal Leadership: The Hidden Driver of Great Performance. [Article]. Harvard Business Review, 79(11), 42-51.
Gooty, J., Connelly, S., Griffith, J., & Gupta, A. (2010). Leadership, affect and emotions: A state of the science review. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(6), 979-1004. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.10.005
Harrison, J. K., & Clough, M. W. (2006). Characteristics of “state of the art” leaders: Productive narcissism versus emotional intelligence and Level 5 capabilities. [Article]. Social Science Journal, 43(2), 287-292. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soscij.2006.02.007
Hawkins, J., & Dulewicz, V. (2009). Relationships between Leadership Style, the Degree of Change Experienced, Performance and Follower Commitment in Policing. [Article]. Journal of Change Management, 9(3), 251-270. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14697010903125498
Higgs, M., & Aitken, P. (2003). An exploration of the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership potential. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(8), 814-823. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683940310511890
Hong, Y., Catano, V. M., & Liao, H. (2011). Leader emergence: The role of emotional intelligence and motivation to lead. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(4), 320-343.
Hopkins, M. M., O'Neil, D. A., & Williams, H. W. (2007). Emotional intelligence and board governance: Leadership lessons from the public sector. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(7), 683-700. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683940710820109
Huang, X., Chan, S. C., Lam, W., & Nan, X. (2010). The joint effect of leader-member exchange and emotional intelligence on burnout and work performance in call centers in china. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(7), 1124-1144. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585191003783553
Humphrey, R. H. (2002). The many faces of emotional leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(5), 493-504. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843%2802%2900140-6
Humphrey, R. H., Pollack, J. M., & Hawver, T. (2008). Leading with emotional labor. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(2), 151-168.
Humphreys, J. H., Weyant, L. E., & Sprague, R. D. (2003). Organizational Commitment: The Roles of Emotional and Practical Intellect within the Leader/Follower Dyad. [Article]. Journal of Business & Management, 9(2), 189.
Hur, Y., van den Berg, P. T., & Wilderom, C. P. (2011). Transformational leadership as a mediator between emotional intelligence and team outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(4), 591-603.
Jacobs, R. L., & McClelland, D. C. (1994). Moving up the corporate ladder: A longitudinal study of the leadership motive pattern and managerial success in women and men. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 46(1), 32-41. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1061-4087.46.1.32
Jordan, P. J., & Troth, A. (2011). Emotional intelligence and leader member exchange: The relationship with employee turnover intentions and job satisfaction. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(3), 260-280. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437731111123915
Kafetsios, K., Nezlek, J. B., & Vassiou, A. (2011). A multilevel analysis of relationships between leaders' and subordinates' emotional intelligence and emotional outcomes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(5), 1121-1144. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00750.x
Kellett, J. B., Humphrey, R. H., & Sleeth, R. G. (2006). Empathy and the emergence of task and relations leaders. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(2), 146-162. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.12.003
Kerr, R., Garvin, J., Heaton, N., & Boyle, E. (2006). Emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27(4), 265-279. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437730610666028
Klem, C., & Schlechter, A. F. (2008). The relationship between leader emotional intelligence and psychological climate: An exploratory study. [Article]. South African Journal of Business Management, 39(2), 9-23.
Koman, E. S., & Wolff, S. B. (2008). Emotional intelligence competencies in the team and team leader: A multi-level examination of the impact of emotional intelligence on team performance. Journal of Management Development, 27(1), 55-75. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621710810840767
Lam, C. S., & O'Higgins, E. R. (2012). Enhancing employee outcomes: The interrelated influences of managers' emotional intelligence and leadership style. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 33(2), 149-174. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437731211203465
Larin, H. M., Benson, G., Martin, L., Wessel, J., Williams, R., & Ploeg, J. (2011). Examining change in emotional-social intelligence, caring, and leadership in health professions students. Journal of Allied Health, 40(2), 96-102.
Lindebaum, D., & Cartwright, S. (2011). Leadership effectiveness: The costs and benefits of being emotionally intelligent. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(3), 281-290. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437731111123924
Lucas, V., Laschinger, H. K., & Wong, C. A. (2008). The impact of emotional intelligent leadership on staff nurse empowerment: The moderating effect of span of control. Journal of Nursing Management, 16(8), 964-973. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2008.00856.x
Mandell, B., & Pherwani, S. (2003). Relationship between emotional leadership style: A gender comparison. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17(3), 387-404. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022816409059
McCleskey, J. (2014). Emotional intelligence and leadership: A review of the progress, controversy, and criticism. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 22(1), 76-93. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJOA-03-2012-0568
Momeni, N. (2009). The Relation Between Managers' emotional intelligence and the organizational climate they create. Public Personnel Management, 38(2), 35-48.
Mortan, R. A., Ripoll, P., Carvalho, C., & Bernal, M. (2014). Effects of emotional intelligence on entrepreneurial intention and self-efficacy. Revista de Psicologia del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 30(3), 97-104.
Moss, S., Ritossa, D., & Ngu, S. (2006). The effect of follower regulatory focus and extraversion on leadership behavior: The role of emotional intelligence. Journal of Individual Differences, 27(2), 93-107. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001.27.2.93
Palmer, B., Walls, M., Burgess, Z., & Stough, C. (2001). Emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 22(1), 5-10. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437730110380174
Rahim, M., & Psenicka, C. (2005). Relationship between emotional intelligence and effectiveness of leader role: A dyadic study in four countries. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 13(4), 327-342. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb029010
Rajah, R., Song, Z., & Arvey, R. D. (2011). Emotionality and leadership: Taking stock of the past decade of research. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(6), 1107-1119. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.09.006
Ramo, L. G., Saris, W. E., & Boyatzis, R. E. (2009). The impact of social and emotional competencies on effectiveness of Spanish executives. Journal of Management Development, 28(9), 771-793. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621710910987656
Rego, A., Sousa, F., Pina e Cunha, M., Correia, A., & Saur-Amaral, I. (2007). Leader Self-Reported Emotional Intelligence and Perceived Employee Creativity: An Exploratory Study. [Article]. Creativity & Innovation Management, 16(3), 250-264. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8691.2007.00435.x
Riggio, R. E., & Reichard, R. J. (2008). The emotional and social intelligences of effective leadership: An emotional and social skill approach. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(2), 169-185.
Rosete, D., & Ciarrochi, J. (2005). Emotional intelligence and its relationship to workplace performance outcomes of leadership effectiveness. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 26(5), 388-399. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437730510607871
Rubin, R. S., Munz, D. C., & Bommer, W. H. (2005). Leading from within: The effects of emotion recognition and personality on transformational leadership behavior. [Article]. Academy of Management Journal, 48(5), 845-858. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amj.2005.18803926
Ryan, G., Emmerling, R. J., & Spencer, L. M. (2009). Distinguishing high-performing European executives: The role of emotional, social and cognitive competencies. Journal of Management Development, 28(9), 859-875. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621710910987692
Sadri, G. (2012). Emotional intelligence and leadership development. Public Personnel Management, 41(3), 535-548. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009102601204100308
Sanchez-Burks, J., & Huy, Q. N. (2009). Emotional Aperture and Strategic Change: The Accurate Recognition of Collective Emotions. [Article]. Organization Science, 20(1), 22-34.
Schlaerth, A., Ensari, N., & Christian, J. (2013). A meta-analytical review of the relationship between emotional intelligence and leaders' constructive conflict management. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 16(1), 126-136. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1368430212439907
Sears, G. J., & Holmvall, C. M. (2010). The joint influence of supervisor and subordinate emotional intelligence on leader-member exchange. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(4), 593-605. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10869-009-9152-y
Severinsson, E. (2010). Guest editorial: The role of reflective leadership, supervision as well as emotional intelligence in nursing and midwifery. [Editorial]. Journal of Nursing Management, 18(4), 351-354.
Siegling, A., Nielsen, C., & Petrides, K. (2014). Trait emotional intelligence and leadership in a European multinational company. Personality and Individual Differences, 65, 65-68. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.01.049
Singh, A. K., Singh, S., & Singh, A. (2014). Personality traits and turnover intention among front level managerial personnel. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 40(2), 228-236.
Sivanathan, N., & Fekken, G. (2002). Emotional intelligence, moral reasoning and transformational leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(4), 198-204. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437730210429061
Smollan, R., & Parry, K. (2011). Follower perceptions of the emotional intelligence of change leaders: A qualitative study. Leadership, 7(4), 435-462. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1742715011416890
Sosik, J. J., & Megerian, L. E. (1999). Understanding leader emotional intelligence and performance: The role of self-other agreement on transformational leadership perceptions. Group & Organization Management, 24(3), 367-390. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1059601199243006
Srivsastava, K. B., & Bharamanaikar, S. (2004). Emotional Intelligence and Effective Leadership Behaviour. Psychological Studies, 49(2-3), 107-113.
Stein, S. J., Papadogiannis, P., Yip, J. A., & Sitarenios, G. (2009). Emotional intelligence of leaders: A profile of top executives. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 30(1), 87-101. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437730910927115
Tang, H.-W. V., Yin, M.-S., & Nelson, D. B. (2010). The relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership practices: A cross-cultural study of academic leaders in Taiwan and the USA. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(8), 899-926. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683941011089143
Taylor, S. N., & Hood, J. N. (2011). It may not be what you think: Gender differences in predicting emotional and social competence. Human Relations, 64(5), 627-652. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726710387950
Troth, A. C., & Gyetvey, C. (2014). Identifying leadership potential in an Australian context. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 52(3), 333-350. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-7941.12034
Vidyarthi, P. R., Anand, S., & Liden, R. C. (2014). Do emotionally perceptive leaders motivate higher employee performance? The moderating role of task interdependence and power distance. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(2), 232-244. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2013.08.003
Wang, Y.-S., & Huang, T.-C. (2009). The relationship of transformational leadership with group cohesiveness and emotional intelligence. Social Behavior and Personality, 37(3), 379-392. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2009.37.3.379
Webb, K. S. (2009). Why Emotional Intelligence Should Matter to Management: A Survey of the Literature. [Article]. SAM Advanced Management Journal (07497075), 74(2), 32-41.
Weinberger, L. A. (2002). Emotional Intelligence: Its Connection to HRD Theory and Practice. Human Resource Development Review, 1(2), 215-243. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15384302001002005
Weinberger, L. A. (2009). Emotional intelligence, leadership style, and perceived leadership effectiveness. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(6), 747-772. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1523422309360811
Williams, H. W. (2008). Characteristics that distinguish outstanding urban principals: Emotional intelligence, social intelligence and environmental adaptation. Journal of Management Development, 27(1), 36-54. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621710810840758
Wong, C.-S., & Law, K. S. (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(3), 243-274. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843%2802%2900099-1
Wu, W., Liu, Y., Song, L. J., & Liu, J. (2006). Effects of organizational leadership on employee commitment: The moderating role of emotional intelligence. Journal of Psychology in Chinese Societies, 7(2), 283-306.
Yunus, N. H., Ghazali, K., & Hassan, C. N. (2011). The influence of leader's emotional intelligence: Mediating effect of leader-member exchange on employees' organizational citizenship behaviors. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(3), 1125-1134.
Zampetakis, L. A., & Moustakis, V. (2011). Managers' trait emotional intelligence and group outcomes: The case of group job satisfaction. Small Group Research, 42(1), 77-102. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046496410373627
Zhou, J., & George, J. M. (2003). Awakening employee creativity: The role of leader emotional intelligence. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(4-5), 545-568. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843%2803%2900051-1
Share this resource with others
News and Events
Check out our new EVENTS section to find out about the latest conferences and training opportunities involving members of the EI Consortium.
Workshops and Conferences
The 5th International Congress on Emotional Intelligence will be held from September 17 – 19, 2015 in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
There will be international experts presenting on EI research and applications in the areas of education, business, organizations, medicine, therapy, assessment, consultation and the arts. Join our expanding community and network with scholars, researchers, educators, clinicians and consultants who are dedicated to the EI field. Click here for more information.
Listen to Consortium member Chuck Wolfe interview some of the thought leaders in emotional intelligence.
Interview with Dr. Helen Riess - NEW!!
Changes in healthcare have led to pressures on providers to spend less time with patients resulting in less time for questions, empathy and compassion. Helen Riess, M.D., a Harvard Medical Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, and Chief Scientist and Chairman of Empathetics, is one person working hard to reverse this trend. Dr. Riess's company teaches empathy to doctors and other healthcare professionals often leading to very positive outcomes. Click here to listen to the interview.
Interview with Dr. Daniel Goleman
Listen to an interview by with Dr. Goleman on his new book Focus: The Hidden Driver of Excellence. In the book Dan helps readers to understand the importance and power of the ability to focus one's attention, will power, and cognitive control in creating life success. Click here to listen to the interview.
Interview with Dr. John Mayer
How Personal Intelligence Shapes Our Lives: A Conversation with John D. Mayer. From picking a life partner, to choosing a career, Jack explains how personal intelligence has a major impact on our ability to make successful decisions. Click here to listen to the interview.
Interview with Dr. Cary Cherniss
Interview with Dr. Marc Brackett
Click HERE to listen to an interview with Dr. Marc Brackett, the newly appointed leader of the Center of Emotional Intelligence which will begin operation at Yale University in April, 2013. In this interview Dr. Brackett shares his vision for the new center.
Emotional and Social Intelligence Competencies: Cross Cultural Implications
Continued research on the assessment and development of emotional and social intelligence competencies represents an opportunity to further both theoretical and applied applications of behavioral science to the management of human capital. While the field has continued to expand over the preceding decades, research has often trailed application, especially as it relates to cross-cultural validity. The purpose of this special issue of Cross Cultural Management - An International Journal serves to focus on cultural issues related to applied use of emotional and social intelligence competencies in diverse cultures. Articles in the special issue include data from various countries including India, Peru, China, Italy, Australia, and the United States. Click here to read more.