Peter Salovey, Ph.D.

member emotional intelligence consortium

Affiliation: Yale University
Email: peter.salovey@yale.edu

Biography

Peter Salovey, Provost at Yale University, is the Chris Argyris Professor of Psychology and a Professor of Management and of Epidemiology and Public Health at Yale. He directs the Health, Emotion and Behavior Laboratory . He also has affiliations with the Yale Cancer Center and the Institution for Social and Policy Studies.

Professor Salovey received an A.B. in Psychology and a co-terminal M.A. in Sociology from Stanford University in 1980.  He holds three Yale degrees in psychology: an M.S. (1983), M.Phil. (1984), and Ph.D. (1986). Salovey was President of the Graduate and Professional Student Senate at Yale in 1983-84. He joined the Yale faculty as an assistant professor in 1986 and has been a full professor since 1995.

Salovey's research has focused on the psychological significance and function of human moods and emotions, and the application of social psychological principles to motivate people to adopt behaviors that protect their health. His work concerns the ways in which emotions facilitate adaptive cognitive and behavioral functioning. With John D. Mayer, he developed a broad framework, coined "emotional intelligence," to describe how people understand, manage and use their emotions. With John Mayer and David Caruso he developed ways to measure emotional intelligence as a set of abilities.  Their Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was published by Multi-Health Systems in 2002.  Much of his current work concerns the predictive validity of emotional intelligence in schools, workplaces, and social relations.

Salovey’s work on health behavior has included field experiments evaluating how educational and public health messages can best be tailored to promote prevention and early detection behaviors relevant to cancer and HIV/AIDS. 

Salovey's research has been funded by a Presidential Young Investigator (PYI) Award from the National Science Foundation and grants from the National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse, American Cancer Society, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and Ethel F. Donaghue Women's Health Investigator Program.  He served a three-year term on the National Science Foundation's social psychology study section, and was a member of the NIH behavioral science working group on translational research in mental health.  He completed a four-year term on the NIMH National Advisory Mental Health Council in 2007.

Salovey has published more than 300 articles and chapters, and he has authored, coauthored, or edited 13 books including Peer counseling: Skills and perspectives; Reasoning, inference, and judgment in clinical psychology; The psychology of jealousy and envy; Psychology; The remembered self:  Emotion and memory in personality; Peer counseling:  Skills, ethics, and perspectives; Emotional development and emotional intelligence; At play in the fields of consciousness; Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT): User's manual; The wisdom in feeling:  Psychological processes in emotional intelligence; Key readings in the social psychology of health; and The Emotionally Intelligent Manager.  He edits the Guilford Press series Emotions and Social Behavior, and he has served as Editor or Associate Editor for three scientific journals:  Psychological Bulletin, Review of General Psychology, and Emotion.

Salovey, who has taught the Introductory Psychology course since his first days on the faculty, was awarded the William Clyde DeVane Medal for Distinguished Scholarship and Teaching in Yale College in 2000 and the Lex Hixon Prize for Teaching in the Social Sciences at Yale in 2002.  In his leisure time, Salovey plays stand-up bass with The Professors of Bluegrass.

Articles

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J.D.  (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185-211.
Mayer, J.D., DiPaolo, M., & Salovey, P. (1990).  Perceiving the affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli:  A component of emotional intelligence.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 54, 772-781.

Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., Gomberg-Kaufman, S., & Blainey, K. (1991).  A broader conception of mood experience.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 100-111.

Mayer, J.D., & Salovey, P.  (1993).  The intelligence of emotional intelligence. Intelligence, 17, 433-442.

Mayer, J.D., & Salovey, P.  (1995).  Emotional intelligence and the construction and regulation of feelings.  Applied and Preventive Psychology, 4, 197-208.

Goldman, S.L., Kraemer, D.T., & Salovey, P.  (1996).  Beliefs about mood moderate the relationship of stress to illness and symptom reporting.  Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 41, 115-128.

Mayer, J.D., Caruso, D., & Salovey, P.  (1999).  Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence.  Intelligence, 27, 267-298.

Mayer, J.D., Perkins, D.M., Caruso, D.R., & Salovey, P. (2001).  Emotional intelligence and giftedness.  Roeper Review, 23, 131-137.

Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D.R., & Sitarenios, G. (2001).  Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence.  Emotion, 1, 232-242.

Caruso, D.R., Mayer, J.D., & Salovey, P.  (2002).  Relation of an ability measure of emotional intelligence to personality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79, 306-320.

Lopes, P.N., Salovey, P., & Straus, R.  (2003).  Emotional intelligence, personality, and the perceived quality of social relationships. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 641-658.

Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D.R., & Sitarenios, G. (2003).  Measuring emotional intelligence with the MSCEIT V2.0.  Emotion, 3, 97-105.

Lopes, P.N., Brackett, M.A., Nezlek, J.B., Schütz, A., Sellin, I., & Salovey, P.  (2004).  Emotional intelligence and social interaction. Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin, 30, 1018-1034.

Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D.R. (2004).  Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications.  Psychological Inquiry, 15, 197-215.

Mayer, J.D. Salovey, P., & Caruso, D.R. (2004).  A further consideration of the issues of emotional intelligence.  Psychological Inquiry, 15, 249-255.

Resnicow, J.E., Salovey, P., & Repp, B.H. (2004).  Is recognition of emotion in musical performance an aspect of emotional intelligence?  Music Perception, 22, 145-158.

Fernández-Berrocal, P., Salovey, P., Vera, A., Extremera, N. & Ramos, N. (2005). Cultural influences on the relation between perceived emotional intelligence and depression. International Review of Social Psychology, 18, 91-107.

Grewal, D.D., & Salovey, P. (2005).  Feeling smart: The science of emotional intelligence.  American Scientist, 93, 330-339.

Lopes, P.N., Salovey, P., Cote, S., & Beers, M. (2005).  Emotion regulation abilities and the quality of social interaction.  Emotion, 5, 113-118.

Mayer, J.D., Panter, A.T., Salovey, P., Caruso, D.R., & Sitarenios, G.  (2005).  A discrepancy in analyses of the MSCEIT: Resolving the mystery and understanding its implications.  Emotion, 5, 236-237.

Salovey, P., & Grewal, D. (2005).  The science of emotional intelligence.  Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 281-285.

Brackett, M.A., Rivers, S.E., Shiffman, S., Lerner, N., & Salovey, P. (2006). Relating emotional abilities to social functioning: A comparison of self-report and performance measures of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 780-795.

Brackett, M.A., & Salovey, P. (2006).  Measuring emotional intelligence with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT).  Psicothema, 18, 34-41.

Extremera, N., Fernandez-Berrocal, P., & Salovey, P. (2006).  Spanish version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT).  Version 2.0: Reliabilities, age, and gender differences.  Psicothema, 18, 42-48.

Lopes, P.N., Grewal, D., Kadis, J., Gall, M., & Salovey, P. (2006). Evidence that emotional intelligence is related to job performance and affect and attitudes at work.  Psicothema, 18, 132-138.

Materese, S. A., Latimer, A. E., Brackett, M. A. Rivers, S. E. & Salovey, P. (2006) Mapping the protective pathway of emotional intelligence: From social cognitions to adolescent smoking intentions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 31, s096.

Mestre, J.M., Guil, R., Lopes, P.N., Salovey, P., Gil-Olarte, P. (2006).  Emotional intelligence and social and academic adaptation to school.  Psicothema, 18, 112-117.

Dunn, E. W., Brackett, M. A., Ashton-James, C., Schneiderman, E., & Salovey, P. (2007). On emotionally intelligent time travel: Individual differences in affective forecasting ability. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 85-93.

Reis, D.L., Brackett, M.A., Shamosh, N.A., Kiehl, K.A., Salovey, P., & Gray, J. (2007).  Emotional intelligence predicts individual differences in social exchange reasoning.  NeuroImage, 35, 1385-1391.

Rivers, S.E., Brackett, M.A., Katulak, N.A., & Salovey, P. (2007).  Regulating anger and sadness: An exploration of discrete emotions in emotion regulation.  Journal of Happiness Studies, 8, 393-427.

Cote, S., Lopes, P.N., Salovey, P., & Miners, C.T.H. (in press). Emotional intelligence and leadership emergence in small groups. Leadership Quarterly.

Yoo, S.H., & Salovey, P. (in press). Emotional intelligence and emotional response to hypothetical and actual frustrating stressors. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality.

Book Chapters

Salovey, P., Hsee, C., & Mayer, J.D.  (1993).  Emotional intelligence and the self-regulation of affect.  In D.M. Wegner & J.W. Pennebaker (Eds.), Handbook of mental control (pp. 258-277).  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice-Hall.

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J.D.  (1994).  Some final thoughts about personality and intelligence.  In R.J. Sternberg & P. Ruzgis (Eds.), Personality and intelligence (pp. 303-318).  Cambridge, England:  Cambridge University Press.

Salovey, P., Mayer, J.D., Goldman, S., Turvey, C., & Palfai, T. (1995).  Emotional attention, clarity, and repair:  Exploring emotional intelligence using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale.  In J. Pennebaker (Ed.), Emotion, disclosure, and health (pp. 125-154).  Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association.

Mayer, J.D., & Salovey, P. (1997).  What is emotional intelligence?  In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence:  Implications for educators (pp. 3-31).  New York:  Basic Books.

Salovey, P., Bedell, B.T., Detweiler, J.B., & Mayer, J.D.  (1999).  Coping intelligently:  Emotional intelligence and the coping process.  In C.R. Snyder (Ed.), Coping: The psychology of what works (pp. 141-164).  New York:  Oxford University Press.

Mayer, J.D., Caruso, D. & Salovey, P. (2000).  Selecting a measure of emotional intelligence:  The case for ability scales. In R. Bar-On & J.D.A. Parker (Eds.), The handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 320-342).  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass.

Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. (2000).  Emotional intelligence as Zeitgeist, as personality, and as a mental ability. In R. Bar-On & J.D.A. Parker (Eds.), The handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 92-117).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D.  (2000).  Models of emotional intelligence.  In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), The handbook of intelligence (pp. 396-420).  New York:  Cambridge University Press.

Salovey, P., Bedell, B.T., Detweiler, J.B., & Mayer, J.D.  (2000).  Current directions in emotional intelligence research.  In M. Lewis & J.M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (2nd edition, pp. 504-520).  New York:  Guilford Press.

Salovey, P. (2001).  Applied emotional intelligence:  Regulating emotions to become healthy, wealthy, and wise.  In J. Ciarrochi, J. Forgas, & J.D. Mayer (Eds.), Emotional intelligence in everyday life: A scientific inquiry (pp. 168-184)  Philadelphia, PA:  Psychology Press.

Salovey, P. (2001).  Emotionele intelligentie: Stand van zaken.  In C. Hamaker (Ed.), Een boek vol emoties (pp. 27-32).  Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Salovey, P., Woolery, A., & Mayer, J.D.  (2001). Emotional intelligence: Conceptualization and measurement.  In G.J.O. Fletcher & M.S. Clark (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Interpersonal processes (pp. 279-307).  Malden, MA:  Blackwell Publishers.

Caruso, D.R., Mayer, J.D., & Salovey, P. (2002).  Emotional intelligence and emotional leadership.  In R.E. Riggio, S.E. Murphy, & F.J. Pirozzolo  (Eds.),  Multiple intelligences and leadership (pp. 55-74).  Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Pizarro, D.A., & Salovey, P.  (2002). Being and becoming a good person:  The role of emotional intelligence in moral development and behavior.  In J. Aronson & D. Cordova (Eds.), Improving academic achievement:  Impact of psychological factors on education (pp. 247-266)San Diego: Academic Press.

Salovey, P., Mayer, J.D., & Caruso, D.  (2002). The positive psychology of emotional intelligence.  In C.R. Snyder & S.J. Lopez (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology (pp. 159-171).  New York: Oxford University Press.
Salovey, P., & Lopes, P.N. (2003).  Emotional intelligence.  In J.W. Guthrie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of education (2nd edition, Volume 4, pp. 1191-1194).  New York: Macmillan Reference USA.

Salovey, P., Mayer, J.D., Caruso, D., & Lopes, P.N. (2003).  Measuring emotional intelligence as a set of abilities with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test.  In S.J. Lopez & C.R. Snyder (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures (pp. 251-265).  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Salovey, P., & Pizarro, D.A. (2003).  The value of emotional intelligence.  In R. J. Sternberg, J. Lautrey, & T. I. Lubart (Eds.), Models of intelligence: International perspectives (pp. 263-278).  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Brackett, M. A., Lopes, P., Ivcevic, Z., Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (2004). Integrating emotion and cognition: The role of emotional intelligence. In D. Dai & R Sternberg (Eds.), Motivation, emotion, and cognition: Integrating perspectives on intellectual functioning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Brackett, M.A., & Salovey, P. (2004).  Measuring emotional intelligence with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT).  In G. Geher (Ed.), Measurement of emotional intelligence (pp. 181-196).Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

Lopes, P., & Salovey, P. (2004).  Toward a broader education: Social, emotional, and practical skills.  In J.E. Zins, R.P. Weissberg, M.C. Wang, & H.J. Walberg (Eds.), Building school success on social and emotional learning. New York: Teachers College Press.

Mayer, J.D., & Salovey, P. (2004).  Social intelligence, emotional intelligence, personal intelligence.  In C. Peterson & M.E.P. Seligman (Eds.), Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification (pp. 337-353).Washington: American Psychological Association/Oxford University Press.

Salovey, P. (2004).  Emotions and emotional intelligence for educators.  I. Eloff & L. Ebersöhn (Eds.), Keys to educational psychology (pp. 31-43).  Cape Town, South Africa: UCT Press.

Salovey, P., Caruso, D., & Mayer, J.D. (2004).  Emotional intelligence in practice.  In P.A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (pp. 447-463).Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Salovey, P., Kokkonen, M., Lopes, P.N., & Mayer, J.D. (2004).  Emotional intelligence: What do we know?  In A.S.R. Manstead, N.H. Frijda, & A.H. Fischer (Eds.), Feelings and emotions: The Amsterdam symposium (pp. 321-340).  New York: Cambridge University Press.

Woolery, A., & Salovey, P. (2004).  Emotional intelligence and physical health. In I. Nyklicek, L.R. Temoshok, & A. Vingerhoets (Eds.), Emotional expression and health:  Biobehavioral perspectives on health and disease prevention (Vol. 6, pp. 154-168).  New York: Harwood Academic Publishers.

Grewal, D.D., Brackett, M., & Salovey, P. (2006).  Emotional intelligence and the self-regulation of affect.  In D.K. Snyder, J.A. Simpson, & J.N. Hughes (Eds.), Emotion regulation in couples and families (pp. 37-55).  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 

Grewal, D.D., & Salovey, P. (2006).  Benefits of emotional intelligence.  In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I.S. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), A life worth living: Contributions to positive psychology (pp. 104-119)New York: Oxford University Press.

Grewal, D.D., & Salovey, P. (2006).  Emotional intelligence.  In S. Feinstein (Ed.), The Praeger handbook of learning and the brain (pp. 200-204).Westport, CT: Praeger Publishing.

Lopes, P.N., Côté, S., & Salovey, P. (2006).  An ability model of emotional intelligence: Implications for assessment and training.  In V.U. Druskat, F. Sala, & G. Mount (Eds.), Linking emotional intelligence and performance at work: Current research evidence with individuals and groups  (pp. 53-80). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Salovey, P. (2006).  Applied emotional intelligence:  Regulating emotions to become healthy, wealthy, and wise.  In J. Ciarrochi, J. Forgas, & J.D. Mayer (Eds.), Emotional intelligence in everyday life: A scientific inquiry (2nd edition, pp. 229-248)  Philadelphia, PA:  Psychology Press.

Salovey, P. (2006).  Epilogue: The agenda for future research. In V.U. Druskat, F. Sala, & G. Mount (Eds.), Linking emotional intelligence and performance at work: Current research evidence with individuals and groups (pp. 267-272). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Brackett, M. A. & Salovey, P. (2007). La evaluación de la inteligencia emocional con el Mayer, Salovey, Caruso emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT). In J. M. Mestre Navas & P. Fernández Berrocal (Coords.), Manual de inteligencia emocional (pp. 69-80). Madrid: Pirámide.

Lopes, P. N., Côté, S. & Salovey, P. (2007). Un modelo de habilidad de la inteligencia emocional: Implicaciones para la evaluación y el entrenamiento. En J. M. Mestre Navas & P. Fernández Berrocal (coords.), Manual de inteligencia emocional (pp. 217-234). Madrid: Pirámide.

Mayer, J. D. & Salovey, P. (2007). ¿Qué es Inteligencia Emocional? En J. M. Mestre Navas y P. Fernández Berrocal (coords.), Manual de inteligencia emocional (pp. 25-45). Madrid: Pirámide.

Rivers, S.E., Brackett, M.A., Salovey, P., & Mayer, J.D. (2007).  Measuring emotional intelligence as a set of mental abilities.   In G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, & R.D. Roberts (Eds.), The science of emotional intelligence: Knowns and unknowns (pp. 230-257).  New York: Oxford University Press.

Salovey, P. (2007).  Integrative summary.  In R. Bar-On, J.G.Maree, & M.J. Elias (Eds.), Educating people to be emotionally intelligent (pp. 291-298). Westport, CT:  Praeger Publishers.

Wranik, T., Feldman Barrett, L., & Salovey, P. (2007). Intelligent emotion regulation: Is knowledge power? In J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 393-407). New York: Guilford Press.

Brackett, M.A., & Salovey, P. (2008). Pomiar inteligencji emocjonalnej skala Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. In M. Smieja & J. Orzechowski (Eds.), Inteligencja emocjonalna: Fakty, mity, kontrowersje. Warszawa, Poland: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Caruso, D.R., & Salovey, P. (2008). Coaching for emotional intelligence: MSCEIT. In J. Passmore (Ed.), Psychometrics in coaching: Using psychological and psychometric tools for development (pp. 151-170). London: Kogan Page.

Lopes, P.N., & Salovey, P. (2008). Emotional intelligence and leadership: Implications for leader development. In C.L. Hoyt, G. R. Goethals, & D. R. Forsyth (Eds.), Leadership at the crossroads: Leadership and psychology (pp. 78-98). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D.R. (2008). What is emotional intelligence and what does it predict? In P.C. Kyllonen, R.D. Roberts, & L. Stankov (Eds.), Extending intelligence: Enhancement and new constructs (pp. 319-348). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Taylor & Francis Group.

Rivers, S.E., Brackett, M.A., & Salovey, P. (2008). Measuring emotional intelligence as a mental ability in adults and children. In G.J. Boyle, G. Matthews, & D.H. Saklofske (Eds.), The Sage handbook of personality theory and assessment: Vol. 2, Personality measurement and testing (pp. 440- 460). Los Angeles: Sage.

Salovey, P., Detweiler-Bedell, B.T., Detweiler-Bedell, J.B., & Mayer, J.D. (2008). Emotional intelligence. In M. Lewis, J.M. Haviland-Jones, & Feldman Barrett, L. (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd edition, pp. 533-547). New York: Guilford Press.

Ameriks, J., Wranik, T., & Salovey, P. (2009). Emotional intelligence and investor behavior. Research Foundation of CFA Institute Publications, 1-75.

Brackett, M.A., Crum, A., & Salovey, P. (2009). Emotional intelligence. In S.J. Lopez (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Positive Psychology (Volume 1, pp. 310-315). New York: Blackwell.

Brackett, M.A., Patti, J., Stern, R., Rivers, S.E., Elbertson, N., Chisholm, C., & Salovey, P. (2009). A sustainable, skill-based approach to building emotionally literate schools. In M. Hughes, H.L. Thompson, & J.B. Terrell (Eds.), Handbook for developing emotional and social intelligence: Best practices, case studies, and strategies (pp. 329-358). New York: Pfeiffer.

Salovey, P., & Brackett, M. A. (2009). Intelligence, emotional. In D. Sander & K. R. Scherer (Eds.), The Oxford companion to emotion and the affective sciences (pp. 218-219). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Salovey, P., Mayer, J.D., Caruso, D., & Yoo, S.H. (2009). The positive psychology of emotional intelligence. In S.J. Lopez & C.R. Snyder (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology (2nd Edition, pp. 237-248). New York: Oxford University Press.

Brackett, M.A., Crum, A., & Salovey, P.  (in press).  Emotional intelligence.  In S.J. Lopez (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Positive Psychology. New York: Blackwell.

Brackett, M.A., & Salovey, P. (in press). Emotional intelligence.  In R. Baumeister & K.D. Vohs (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publications.

Lopes, P.N., & Salovey, P. (in press).  Emotional intelligence and leadership:  Implications for leader development.  In D.R. Forsyth, G. Goethals, & C. Hoyt (Eds.), Social psychology and leadership. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Rivers, S.E., Brackett, M.A., Salovey, P., & Mayer, J.D. (in press).  Measuring emotional intelligence as a mental ability in adults and children.  In G.J. Boyle, G. Matthews, & D.H. Saklofske (Eds.), Handbook of personality theory and testing.  London: Sage.

Salovey, P., Detweiler-Bedell, B., Detweiler-Bedell, J., & Mayer, J. (in press).  Emotional intelligence, coping, and self-regulation.  In M. Lewis & J.M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd edition).  New York:  Guilford Press.

Salovey, P., Mayer, J.D., Caruso, D., & Yoo, S.H. (in press).  The positive psychology of emotional intelligence.  In C.R. Snyder & S.J. Lopez (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology (2nd Edition).  New York: Oxford University Press

Brackett, M.A., & Salovey, P. (in press). Emotional intelligence. In R. Baumeister & K.D. Vohs (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

 

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