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Recommended Book

Guidelines for Best Practice


These guidelines are based on an exhaustive review of the research literature in training and development, counseling and psychotherapy, and behavior change. The guidelines are additive and synergistic; to be effective, social and emotional learning experiences need not adhere to all of these guidelines, but the chances for success increase with each one that is followed. Read More» If you are interested in reading the full technical report on emotional intelligence in the workplace published by the Consortium on Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations, click here to download your free copy.


The Business Case for Emotional Intelligence

The following 19 points build a case for how emotional intelligence contributes to the bottom line in any work organization. Based on data from a variety of sources, it can be a valuable tool for HR practitioners and managers who need to make the case in their own organizations. The Consortium also invites submissions of other research for the Business Case. All submissions will be reviewed to determine their suitability. Read more»

Research Digest

This section of the EI Consortium web site is intended to keep you updated with the latest research findings. We will be summarizing the latest research in the area of emotional intelligence in the workplace by providing you with abstracts of the latest articles from the literature. We will be highlighting a different area from the scholarly literature on emotional intelligence. If you want research updates sent to you automatically, just sign up for our monthly newsletter.

Nowack, K. (2017). Sleep, Emotional Intelligence, and Interpersonal Effectiveness: Natural Bedfellows. Consulting Psychology Journal: Research and Practice, 69, 66-79.

According to the National Sleep Foundation’s Sleep in America Poll, U.S. adults sleep between 6.7 to 7.3 hr every night, which has decreased by approximately 2 hours per night since the 19th century (National Sleep Foundation, 2016). Inconsistent or insufficient sleep can be costly for business, impacting leadership decision making/judgment, interpersonal relations, absenteeism, presenteeism, safety, productivity, and health (Gaultney & Collins-McNeil, 2009; Mills et al., 2007; Rosekind et al., 2010). Daytime sleepiness can be dangerous, and inadequate sleep is a known health hazard resulting in fatigue that can impair both performance and social functioning. In light of existing research on the effects of insufficient sleep on work performance, this study investigated the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and quantity (Stress Profile) of leaders with a concurrent evaluation of relationship skills by their manager and others (direct reports and peers) on a measure of emotional and social competence. Regression analyses indicated that leaders who reported poor quality and quantity of sleep were rated significantly lower on interpersonal effectiveness after controlling for gender and perceived work/life stress by their direct reports and peers but not by their manager.

Miao, C., Humphrey, R. H., & Qian, S. (2017). A meta-analysis of emotional intelligence effects on job satisfaction mediated by job resources, and a test of moderators. Personality and Individual Differences. 116, 281–288.

This paper examines whether job resources act as a mediator in the emotional intelligence (EI)—job satisfaction relationship, and examines possible moderators, including gender, age, tenure, and job level. We conducted a meta-analysis to explore these relationships. The meta-analysis demonstrated that: First, EI is positively related to job resources (k =15,N = 4151; overall EI: ^ρ= 0.27; ability EI: ^ρ= 0.24; self-report EI: ^ρ= 0.27; mixed EI: ^ρ= 0.28). Second, job resources mediate the relationship between EI and job satisfaction. Third, the relationship be-tween EI and job satisfaction does not differ across gender, age, and tenure, meaning that regardless of whether an employee is male or female, young or old, or having short or long tenure, they equally benefit from EI. The moderator effect of job level is only significant for self-report EI—job satisfaction and this relationship is stronger in non-managerial jobs than in managerial jobs. Yet, the moderator effect of job level is not significant for ability EI—job satisfaction and mixed EI—job satisfaction meta-analytic distributions. These results indicate that EI aids employees by helping them obtain job resources, and that both job resources and EI have practical implications in terms of employee job satisfaction.

Miao, C., Humphrey, R. H., & Qian, S. (2017). Are the emotionally intelligent good citizens or counterproductive? A meta-analysis of emotional intelligence and its relationships with organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 116, 144-156.

This research project examines whether emotional intelligence (EI) is related to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). A key question concerns the degree to which EI is related to OCB and CWB after controlling for other established predictors. The study uses meta-analytical summaries of existing research (for EI-OCB, k=68, N = 16,386; for EI-CWB, k= 17, N = 3914). It uses meta-analytical controls to obtain the best estimates of effect sizes, incremental validity, and relative importance. This meta-analysis found that EI is positively associated with OCB and negatively related to CWB. When controlling for ability measures of EI, the Big Five personality measures, general self-efficacy, cognitive intelligence, and self-rated performance, both self-report measures of EI and mixed competency measures of EI show incremental validity and relative importance in predicting OCB and CWB. An analysis of self-report EI found that the effects of EI on OCB and CWB are stronger in health care and service industries than in industries where emotional labor demands are lower. The results imply that organizations can increase OCB and reduce CWB by recruiting employees high in EI and by training employees in emotional competencies.

Miao, C., Humphrey, R. H., & Qian, S. (2016). Leader emotional intelligence and subordinate job satisfaction: A meta-analysis of main, mediator, and moderator effects. Personality and Individual Differences, 102, 13–24.

Based on a meta-analysis, leaders' emotional intelligence (EI) positively relates to subordinates' job satisfaction. . All three EI streams (ability, self-report, mixed) exhibit significant incremental validity and relative importance (RW) in the presence of personality and cognitive ability in predicting subordinates' job satisfaction. Leaders' EI demonstrates significant incremental validity and RW in the presence of subordinates' EI in predicting subordinates' job satisfaction. Subordinates' EI positively relates to leaders' EI and mediates the relationship between leaders' EI and subordinates' job satisfaction. Modera-tor analyses indicate that (1) ability EI has a lower association with subordinates' job satisfaction than self-report EI and mixed EI; and (2) leaders' EI more positively relates to subordinates' job satisfaction in low in-group col-lectivistic or low humane oriented cultures.

Momm, T., Blickle, G., Liu, Y., Wihler, A., Kholin, M., & Menges, J. I. (2015). It pays to have an eye for emotions: Emotion recognition ability indirectly predicts annual income. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36, 147-163

This study examines how the emotion recognition ability relates to annual income. Participants were 142 employees working in various jobs and organizations in Germany. Emotion recognition was assessed with the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy 2, a self-report measure which asks participants to identify facial and vocal emotional expressions. Results revealed that the relationship between emotion recognition ability and annual income is mediated by political and interpersonal skills. This means that the better people are at recognizing emotions, the better they handle the politics in organizations and the interpersonal aspects of work life, and thus the more they earn in their jobs. The findings imply that emotional abilities enable people to be more successful at work.

Parke, M.R., Seo, M.G., & Sherf, E.N. (2015). Regulating and facilitating: The role of emotional intelligence in maintaining and using positive affect for creativity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 917-934.

This study examined how two facets of EI - emotion regulation and emotion facilitation - can shape employee creativity, an important element to driving innovation at work. The study used a multimethod (MSCEIT, experience sampling, survey) and multisource (archival, self-reported, supervisor-reported) research design of early career managers in the U.S. across a wide range of jobs. The study found that emotion regulation ability enables employees to maintain higher positive affect (e.g., excitement and enthusiasm) while emotion facilitation ability enables employees to use their positive affect to enhance their creativity, as measured by their supervisors. A sample item for creativity was: "This person comes up with new and practical ideas to improve performance." The findings indicate that EI is an important variable to consider when hiring knowledge workers to produce creativity in jobs. Because EI tests exist, organizations could include these tests with other personality measures for screening purposes. Employees can also be trained to increase their abilities at managing their emotional states and responses to work requirements.

Koveshnikov, A., Wechtler, H., & Dejoux, C. (2014). Cross-cultural adjustment of expatriates: The role of emotional intelligence and gender. Journal of World Business, 49, 362-371.

The study examines the role of EI in cross-cultural adjustment of expatriates on international assignments. Participants were 269 expatriates from a French company working in 133 countries. The independent variable, EI, was measured using SSEIT, a self-report instrument measuring appraisal, expression, regulation and utilization of emotion. The dependent variable, cross-cultural adjustment, was measured from the point of view of the expatriate based on three factors (general adjustment, interaction adjustment, and work adjustment). Cultural similarity and prior international experience were used as control variables. The results revealed a significant and positive relationship between EI and expatriates' cultural adjustment after controlling for cultural similarity and international experience. This finding suggests that it may be beneficial for organizations to leverage EI as a factor when selecting employees to go on expensive international assignments.

Mahon, E.G., Taylor, S.N., & Boyatzis, R.E. (2014). Antecedents of organizational engagement: exploring vision, mood and perceived organizational support with emotional intelligence as a moderator. Frontiers in Psychology.  Link to full-text article: http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01322/abstract

As organizational leaders worry about the appalling low percentage of people who feel engaged in their work, academics are trying to understand what causes an increase in engagement. We collected survey data from 231 team members from two organizations. We examined the impact of team members’ emotional intelligence (EI) and their perception of shared personal vision, shared positive mood, and perceived organizational support (POS) on the members’ degree of organizational engagement. We found shared vision, shared mood, and POS have a direct, positive association with engagement. In addition, shared vision and POS interact with EI to positively influence engagement. Besides highlighting the importance of shared personal vision, positive mood, and POS, our study contributes to the emergent understanding of EI by revealing EI’s amplifying effect on shared vision and POS in relation to engagement. We conclude by discussing the research and practical implications of this study.

O'Boyle, E. H., Jr., R. H. Humphrey, et al. (2011). The relation between emotional intelligence and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(5), 788-818.

This meta-analysis builds upon a previous meta-analysis by (1) including 65 per cent more studies that have over twice the sample size to estimate the relationships between emotional intelligence (EI) and job performance; (2) using more current meta-analytical studies for estimates of relationships among personality variables and for cognitive ability and job performance; (3) using the three-stream approach for classifying EI research; (4) performing tests for differences among streams of EI research and their relationships with personality and cognitive intelligence; (5) using latest statistical procedures such as dominance analysis; and (6) testing for publication bias. We classified EI studies into three streams: (1) ability-based models that use objective test items; (2) self-report or peer-report measures based on the four-branch model of EI; and (3) ''mixed models'' of emotional competencies. The three streams have corrected correlations ranging from 0.24 to 0.30 with job performance. The three streams correlated differently with cognitive ability and with neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Streams 2 and 3 have the largest incremental validity beyond cognitive ability and the Five Factor Model (FFM). Dominance analysis demonstrated that all three streams of EI exhibited substantial relative importance in the presence of FFM and intelligence when predicting job performance. Publication bias had negligible influence on observed effect sizes. The results support the overall validity of EI.





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